Floor piped radiators
Dropper piped radiators
The most common method of heat generation for Central Heating Upgrades involves the combustion of fossil fuel in a furnace or boiler. The resultant heat gets distributed: typically by forced-air through ductwork or by water circulating through pipes. Increasingly, buildings utilize solar-powered heat sources, in which case the distribution system normally uses water circulation.
In much of northern Europe and in urban portions of Russia, where people seldom require air conditioning in homes due to the temperate climate, most new housing comes with central heating installed. Such areas normally use gas heaters, district heating, or oil-fired systems.
Steam-heating systems, fired by coal, oil or gas, feature primarily in larger buildings. Electrical heating systems occur less commonly and are practical only with low-cost electricity or when geothermal heat pumps are used. Considering the combined system of central generating plant and electric resistance heating, the overall efficiency will be less than for direct use of fossil fuel for space heating.